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Answering All the quotations for Biology
Wriet the Answer under Every quotation if needed or complete the blanks .
1. What do you predict happens to the shape of RBCs when people have defective or absent spectrin or ankyrin?
2. What is a consequence of hereditary Spherocytosis?
3. What erythrocyte characteristics enhance the gas transporting ability of an erythrocyte?
4. What percentage of oxygen is dissolved in plasma and what percentage is attached to hemoglobin?
5. Hb has a much greater affinity (200X) for _____________________ than O2.
6. Why is CO so toxic?
7. What are the normal values of Hb for males and female? And why is one value higher than the other?
8. Why is it advantageous for Hb to reside in RBC’s?
9. Describe the hemoglobin variants and what their percentages are in the blood.
10. HbF is gradually replaced by ____________________ after birth.
11. Why is sickle cell disease not manifested until the 5th or 6th month of postnatal life?
12. List the cells that differentiate from myeloid stem cells.
13. List the cells that differentiate from the lymphoid stem cells.
14. What is a hemocytoblast?
15. Describe erythropoiesis from the erythropoietic stem cell to the reticulocyte.
16. What happens to cell size during erythropoiesis?
17. What happens to cell color during erythropoiesis?
18. What happens to organelles during erythropoiesis?
19. What would the reticulocyte count be if a patient is bleeding. Increased or decreased? and why?
20. What is the relationship between Vitamin B12 and Intrinsic factor?
21. Describe erythrocyte degradation from a damaged erythrocyte to stercobilin.
22. What is anemia?
23. Classify Fe deficiency anemia based on red blood cell size and color.
24. What is the treatment for Hemophilia? And describe its contents.
25. Leukemia interferes with the production of what cells? Which causes which signs and symptoms?
26. What is the mechanism of action for hydroxyurea treatment for sickle cell disease patients?
27. What ion is needed in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway in coagulation?
28. In fibrinolysis, what does antithrombin III inhibit besides factor X?
29. What does protein C inhibit that antithrombin III does not inhibit?
30. Why are newborns given a shot of Vitamin K?
31. What are the results of clot retraction?
32. What is the function of TPA? and describe the use of the TPA administered in myocardial infarction management.
33. What is the function of heparin? And how does it work?
34. The prothrombin time (PT) and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) evaluates which coagulation pathway respectively?
35. A patients PTT would be checked to evaluate the activity of which anticoagulant?
1. What is diastole and Systole?
2. What originates from the aorta at the sinuses of Valsalva?
3. What is the fibrous pericardium made of? And what are its functions?
4. What is the function of the pericardial fluid? And where does it come from?
5. What helps to stabilize the position of valves and myocytes?
6. The heart is filled with blood, why does it need it’s own circulation?
7. What is the crista terminalis and what do the pectinate muscles do?
8. What will a patent ovale cause? And what will this eventually turn into?
9. What is the function of the papillary muscles?
10. What does the anterior interventricular artery serve? and where does it come from?
11. What does the great cardiac vein drain? And what does it drain into?
12. What is collateral circulation? And what is its association with anastomosis?
13. What is the difference between ischemia and infarction?
14.What enzymes are released within 2 to 3 days of a myocardial infarction?
15. What structural adaptations maximize the cardiac myocytes capacity for aerobic respiration?
16. Cardiac myocytes have a long absolute refractory period, What is the importance of this?
What does it prevent and what does it ensure?
17. There are differences between the autorhythmic and contractile cells.
What is/are the channel/s involved with depolarization for both?
Why do the contractile cells have a plateau stage?
What is the percentages in the heart for both?
18. Explain what each wave interval, segment and complex represent below.
19. Explain the difference between an atrial and ventricular fibrillation.
20. What percentage of blood is received by the ventricles during atrial contraction?
21. When ventricular pressure is greater than atrial pressure, the AV valves _________________.
22. When ventricular pressure is greater than arterial pressure, the semilunar valves _________________.
23. Rheumatic mitral stenosis will lead to what? And what bacterial infection causes it?
24. At which point in the cardiac cycle would you expect to hear a murmur associated with stenosis of the aortic semilunar valve?
25. Mitral valve proplapse will lead to what? And what bacterial infection typically causes it?
26. What is Ejection Fraction? What must be implied when it is below 50%? And what procedure is done to get an Ejection Fraction?
27. What is Frank Starling Law of the Heart?
28. What is the difference between Preload and Afterload? And what are the factors that contribute to Preload and Afterload?
29. What is the difference between an inotropic and chronotropic effect? And what are the factors that contribute to a positive and negative ffect for both?
30. What is the difference between the cardioacceleratory center and the cardio inhibitory center? And how does the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves effect both, when the blood pressure is high and when the blood pressure is low?
31. What will result from increased autonomic nervous system stimulation in Congestive Heart Failure?
32. What are a few symptoms and/or signs that are in left sided heart failure which are not in right sided heart failure?
1. Name the four differences between artery and vein.
2. What is the Tunica intima, Tunica media and Tunica adventitia? And what does the vasa vasorum do?
3. What does the conducting artery, distributing artery and arteriole do?
4. What is the difference between the fenestrated and continuous capillaries?
5. What are venous valves formed from?
6. Name three venous sinuses.
7. For systemic veins, what is the percent of total blood volume?
8. In arteriosclerosis, what cells and fibers migrate into the tunica media?
9. In arteriosclerosis, what is the association of LDL and foam cells and what is the result?
10. What are varicose veins? And what happens to the surrounding tissue?
11. What does superficial thrombophlebitis result from? and what is a cause of this condition?
12. What is pulse pressure?
13. What is the most important determinant of peripheral resistance? and how does this effect blood flow?
14. How will polycythemia effect blood flow?
15. ___________________________ is the driving force for the circulation of blood.
16. What is Systolic pressure and what is diastolic pressure? And what are the averages for both respectively?
17. What happens to pulse pressure when blood volume decreases? And why?
18. What happens to vasomotor tone when the patient has increased plasma O2?
19. When the plasma CO2 is increased, the plasma pH is ______________________.
20. When the plasma pH is decreased, the arterial pressure _______________________.
21. What is the effect of epinephrine and norepinephrine on Cardiac Output, Mean Arterial Pressure and Total Peripheral Resistance?
22. What is the mechanism and effect of ADH on blood volume, Total Peripheral Resistance and Mean Arterial Pressure? And is this a long term effect or short term effect?
23. What does angiotensin II do? And what is its association with the angiotensin converting enzyme?
24. What would an ACE inhibitor do?
25. What is a characteristic of hypertension?
26. Autoregulation is controlled by ____________________, not ___________________ factors.
27. What are the three mechanisms of autoregulation?
28. What does arteriole vasodilation ensure?
29. Decreased tissue O2 will cause arteriolar _______________________. This would be an example of reactive or active hyperemia?
30. What is the difference between capillary hydrostatic pressure and capillary osmotic pressure? And what does each do with the fluid in the capillary and in the tissue respectively?
31. What is the Net filtration Pressure on the arterial end? and what is the Net Filtration Pressure on the venous end?
What is the only value that changes in the 2 equations?
32. If NFP is a positive number there is a net movement ______________________________.
33. If NFP is negative there is net reabsorption _____________________________________.
34. If the patient has liver disease, predict the outcome at the capillary end of things.