correlation and causation

Correlation and causation

  • Identify the types of variables you would need to conduct:
    • a Chi-square (for students whose last name begins with A-H)
    • one-sample t-test (for students whose last name begins with I-P)
    • paired t-test (for students whose last name begins with Q-Z)
  • Be sure to explain the number of dependent and independent variables, and the types of dependent variables necessary for the statistical analysis.
  • Provide a health-related example (or use a peer-reviewed article that used the statistical analysis) to explain your answer.

Required Reading and Resources

Cook, A., Netuveli, G., & Sheikh, A. (2004). Chapters 5: Study design, Chapter 6: Combining students, Chapter 7: Managing data. In Basic skills in statistics: A guide for healthcare professionals(pp. 53-86). London, GBR: Class Publishing. eISBN: 9781859591291.

Norman, G. R., & Streiner, D. L. (2014). Section the second: Analysis of variance. Chapter 7: Comparing two groups. In Biostatistics: The bare essentials [4th ed., e-Book]. Shelton, Connecticut: PMPH-USA, Ltd. eISBN-13: 978-1-60795-279-4. Available in the Trident Online Library EBSCO eBook Collection.

Norman, G. R., & Streiner, D. L. (2014). Section the third: Regression and correlation. Chapter 13: Simple regression and correlation. In Biostatistics: The bare essentials [4th ed., e-Book]. Shelton, Connecticut: PMPH-USA, Ltd. eISBN-13: 978-1-60795-279-4. Available in the Trident Online Library EBSCO eBook Collection.

Norman, G. R., & Streiner, D. L. (2014). Section the fourth: Non-parametric statistics. Chapter 21: Tests of significance for categorical frequency data. In Biostatistics: The bare essentials [4th ed., e-Book]. Shelton, Connecticut: PMPH-USA, Ltd. eISBN-13: 978-1-60795-279-4. Available in the Trident Online Library EBSCO eBook Collection.

Additional Reading and Resources (Optional)

Bozeman Science (2011, November 13). Chi-squared test . Retrieved from

Calvert, J. (2005). 2 by 2 contingency tables. Retrieved from http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/econ/twobytwo.htm

McDonald, J. (2009). Chi-square test for goodness-of-fit. In Handbook of biological statistics [2nd ed.]. Sparky House Publishing: Baltimore, Maryland. Retrieved from http://www.biostathandbook.com/chigof.html

McDonald, J. (2009). Chi-square test of independence. In Handbook of biological statistics [2nd ed.]. Sparky House Publishing: Baltimore, Maryland. Retrieved from http://www.biostathandbook.com/chiind.html

Trochim, W. (2006). The t-test. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php

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