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Gender Differences

Examine what the research suggests about gender differences in aggression. How could you apply this information in your current or future professional setting to help reduce aggression?

After examining the research on gender differences in aggression it “reveals that although boys tend to be more overtly aggressive than girls, boys do not tend to be more aggressive than girls when it comes to indirect and relational aggression” (Kassin, 2017). Well, knowing that girls are sometimes more aggressive than boys can help stakeholders to know more about indirect and relational aggression when it comes to gender differences in aggression. My non-profit organization will be unifying the sexes of boy and girls, we will not discriminate against LGBT they will be welcomed also. However, their will be gender aggression knowledge and awareness for the stakeholders to keep the balance with in the workplace environment. “A short-term longitudinal study was conducted of the stability of aggression at two time points across 1 year in a sample of 57 second-grade boys and girls. The outcome of the study shows more aggressive children than would have been chosen through random selection. An oversample for aggression on boys and girls will need to be done to ensure that adequate levels of aggressive behavior were represented. Although the results may vary by gender or by race and ethnicity. However, with a sample of only 57 children, we could not examine whether different findings emerged for boys and girls or for different racial and ethnic groups” (McAuliffe, Hubbard, Rubin, Morrow, & Dearing, 2006).

By stakeholders having this knowledge of indirect forms and relational forms of aggression from children that are affected by gender and ethnicity and what it consists of can definitely have an affect on how the employees and volunteers are deescalating an argument when teens become agitated and become aggressive during conflicts. Relational aggression is a form of indirect aggression, but it focuses on social status, a person’s relationships, and threatens friendships by engaging gossip, backstabbing and influencing others to dislike the target, mostly girls have this type of aggression. Boys are more physical aggressive and with my organization having this type of information there will be security protocols in effect. “According to social learning theory, children (boy or girl) who observe parents use violence observe an entire script for that behavior. Children observe not only the violent behavior but also emotional triggers for violence, circumstances of violence, and consequences of violence. These observations are among the factors that influence behavior” (Foshee, Bauman, & Linder., 1990).



Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2012). Human Aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51. Retrieved 08 15, 2018, from…

Foshee, V. A., Bauman, K. E., & Linder., G. F. (1990). Family violence and the perpetration of adolescent dating violence: Examining social learning and social control processes. Journal of Marriage and the Family;, 331-342. Retrieved 08 15, 2018, from…

Kassin, S. a. (2017). Social Psychology (10th ed.). (G. W. Inc, Ed.) Boston, MA 02210: Cengage Learning. Retrieved 07 13, 2018, from www.SocialPsyhology,10Edition-VitalSourceBookshelf

McAuliffe, M. D., Hubbard, J. A., Rubin, R. M., Morrow, M. T., & Dearing, K. F. (2006). Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Stability of Constructs and Relations to Correlates. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 365-82. Retrieved 08 14, 2018, from…


u06d2-Gender Differences -Verdenas Begay

The research suggests about gender differences in aggression. Gender role enforcement theory describes antigay aggression as a form of gender role policing, whereby perpetrators use violence to censure behavior they perceive as gender inappropriate un masculine, thereby reinforcing the rigid boundaries for acceptable male behavior dictated by their traditional gender role beliefs. Adherence to a rigid masculine gender role positively correlates with right-wing authoritarianism a finding that suggests how gender role enforcement theory may explain the relationship between RWA, sexual prejudice, and aggression. That is, the effect of right-wing authoritarianism on aggression may be due to the tendency for traditionally masculine men to engage in authoritarian thinking, which then leads to the acceptance of sexual prejudice and its expression as antigay aggression. (Goodnight, Cook, Parrott, & Peterson, 2014).

Past research linking gender conformity and physical aggression has largely focused on men as both perpetrators and victims. Furthermore, extant literature emphasizes the role of individual differences in theorizing and assigning meaning to aggressive interactions. In the current study, 60 collegiate men participated in a sham aggression paradigm against a female confederate whose appearance was manipulated to exhibit either masculine or feminine characteristics. Aggression was measured in terms of frequency, intensity, and duration of electric shocks ostensibly administered by the participant to his fictional opponent. Results indicated that low masculine conforming men evinced higher levels of aggression against the feminine opponent than they did toward a masculine opponent. Findings are discussed in terms of the unique influence of the female gender role as it relates to variability in men’s conformity to masculinity and risk of aggressive responding. Identified physical aggression as the only social behavior that reliably distinguishes men from women.(Berke,Sloan,Parrott & Zeichner, 2012).

Several meta-analyses report that men are more likely to engage in direct physical aggression than women. In addition to evidence review, gender role orientation the degree to which a person’s attitudes, beliefs, and behavior conform to norms associated with a socially prescribed gender) has been further associated with aggressive behavior in a number of studies. (Berke,Sloan,Parrott & Zeichner, 2012).

What methods I would use in a future professional setting to help reduce aggression? The social-cognitive model serving as the conceptual framework for the Anger Coping Program and the Coping Power Program began as a model of anger arousal. (Lochman, Palardy, McElroy, Phillips, & Holmes ,2004). I would also use anger management training, depending on the individual anger there are different anger management skills. I would also use psychotherapy with motivational skills and reliance skills.


Goodnight, B. L., Cook, S. L., Parrott, D. J., & Peterson, J. L. (2014). Effects of masculinity, authoritarianism, and prejudice on antigay aggression: A path analysis of gender-role enforcement. Psychology Of Men & Masculinity, 15(4), 437-444. doi:10.1037/a0034565

Berke, D. S., Sloan, C. A., Parrott, D., & Zeichner, A. (2012). Effects of female gender role and gender norm conformity on aggression in men: Does positive masculinity reduce the risk?. Psychology Of Men & Masculinity, 13(4), 367-378. doi:10.1037/a0026525

Lochman, J. E., Palardy, N. R., McElroy, H. K., Phillips, N., & Holmes, K. J. (2004). Anger management interventions. Journal Of Early And Intensive Behavior Intervention, 1(1), 47-56. doi:10.1037/h0100283

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