discussion response 58

Select a classmate’s post from week three. For this post, pretend to be the Finance Minister concerned with using economic investments to strengthen social, cultural, and environmental factors as they relate to health issues.

Create a response that either accepts, denies, or will reconsider with revisions the proposed intervention in the policy brief. The decision to accept, deny, or revise and resubmit must be based upon cultural and/or environmental factors in the country.

In your response, write a post that evaluates whether or not the classmate considered culture and environment in their proposed intervention. If so, is their analysis or interpretation correct? Regardless of your classmates post, what cultural and environmental factors should be considered to make improvements on the health issue discussed in the policy brief? Will the proposed intervention show improvement in local cultural / environmental factors or will it likely do more harm? Provide some data or scholarly references to support your position.

Remember to include a thesis, body content to support your thesis, and concluding remarks. Strong posts will make sure to include and define key course concepts in global health.

Cultural factors examples: role of family or community; religion; views on health and wellness; views on death and dying; Eastern/western/alternative/traditional medicine; beliefs about causes and treatments of illness; gender roles and relationships; sexuality, fertility, childbirth; food beliefs and diet.

Environmental factors examples: water; sanitation; waste disposal; hygiene; housing; exposure to toxic substances; indoor and outdoor air pollution; poor drainage; climate change; ozone depletion.

Classmate post week 3

Malaria in Mali

Owen Pence

From: Minister of Health, Mali

To: Minister of Finance, Mali


Mali is a low-income group country struggling with multiple infectious diseases. One of the main diseases the country is struggling with is Malaria. Malaria can be a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite and is commonly found in mosquitos which then find their way to humans and infect the human host. The World Health Organization estimated in 2016 than 216 million cases were listed and that a staggering amount of 445,000 people passed away from the cases of malaria (CDC, 2018). This infection has already been noted as a serious circumstance and continues to spread when the issue is not properly medically taken care of and when the public is unaware of prevention and caution routes. This global health issue is being brought to your attention because of the numerous fatal cases listed by the CDC and to bring this epidemic to your attention to help counteract the disease before the numbers rise even further. It is with utmost professionalism that this case is managed in a timely manner and you understand the nature and magnitude, risk factors, impact on the health system and the priority steps of actions to help manage the epidemic.

Nature/Magnitude & Who is Most Affected:

The magnitude is quite large, with staggering numbers listed above. Malaria is the number one form of death in Mali, with a fact such as this it is rather imperative to understand the situation and begin contemplating a feasible solution for the people as well as financially. According to linkmalaria.org “By 2000 approximately 72.5% of the population of Mali lived in areas where PfPR2-10 >50% and most of the rest (25.6%) were in areas where PfPR2-10 >10% to 50%. By 2010, the percentage of the population at risk in the hyper-to holoendemic areas had reduced to about 52% with most transitioning to mesoendemic risk areas. By 2013, the trend appears to have been reversed with a linkmalariapopulation in the two highest risk classes increasing” (linkmalaria, 2014). As stated in the data listed prior, this is a serious case of malaria and learning how to eradicate/handle the situation is vital to the people’s health and livelihoods. The people most affected are women who are holding a child and living in rural areas and people who are five and below. Learning to understand who is most at risk and where the danger is most prevalent is the first step to understanding the severity of the situation and how to comprehend what to do next. Next, risk factors will be discussed.

Risk Factors:

Anyone is susceptible to malaria but most importantly, it is wise to understand the risks that can be presented to a mother who is pregnant and children under five years old. Other factors that pose a threat can be noted when the weather is particularly rainy. The symptoms that have been listed on mayoclinic.org present that “a malaria infection is generally characterized by symptoms of moderate to severe shaking chills, high fever, and sweating. Other signs and symptoms may include a with headache, vomiting, and diarrhea” (mayoclinic, 2018).

Impact on The Health System:

Malaria and economic status have a common connection. Although malaria is more of a geographical expenditure and Mali is suffering from high cases of malaria that doesn’t show a direct correlation with their economic status. After spending time on researching the comparison of poverty and malaria it was noted that “Countries that have eliminated malaria in the past half century have all been either subtropical or islands. These countries’ economic growth in the 5 years after eliminating malaria has usually been substantially higher than growth in the neighboring countries” (ncbi, 2001). The economic and social impacts that could be positively affected by understanding the impacts on malaria and the surrounding community could be astonishing. Some of the positive impacts that could be implemented would be a more economically and socially sound country, healthier country, and more potential for population growth.

Priority Action Steps:

When it comes to addressing the problem of malaria within Mali specifically the demographic with the highest level of concern should be addressed to the following, “Control measures against malaria infection should target younger rural women in their first trimester of pregnancy” (ScienceDirect, 2003) and people under five. More research on transmission prevention indicates that according to the ajtmh, a critical step is the epidemiological characterization of transmission reservoirs is a critical step in preparation for interventional trials for malaria elimination/eradication (ahtmh, 2017). After strategically understand the circumstances another prevention method that would be beneficial to the community at large would be insecticide spraying. A case was performed in 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 with the use of indoor residual sprayings of insecticides, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl in two separate districts. Over a million cases had been listed prior to the case study on the insecticides and nothing had changed accept for the indoor residual sprayings for comparison measures. The results indicated that the six months after the indoor residual sprayings were conducted that “rapid reduction” of malaria cases occurred (MalariaJournal, 2017). Lastly, with the information listed above about pregnant women and people under the age of five being most susceptible to malaria severities, it is important to note that bed nets treated with insecticides are another great solution to slow the epidemic. These actions steps can be put in place to help regulate and improve the health of the communities within Mali at large. These actions will not promise you to complete eradication but the overall health of the people of Mali will be greatly improved with the strategic, actionable steps recommended above.

Thank you for your consideration, within my role of the minister of health I strongly recommend action to be made and if you have any further questions it would be my pleasure to help the health of Mali.

Works Cited

J., C., K., J., E., M., . . . M. (2018, January 10). An observational analysis of the impact of indoor residual spraying with non-pyrethroid insecticides on the incidence of malaria in Ségou Region, Mali: 2012–2015. Retrieved from https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/…

Assadou, M. H., Sagara, I., Healy, S. A., Guindo, M. A., Kone, M., Sanogo, S., . . . Doumbo, O. K. (2017, July 12). Malaria Infection and Gametocyte Carriage Rates in Preparation for Transmission Blocking Vaccine Trials in Bancoumana, Mali. Retrieved from https://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajt…

Gallup, J. L. (n.d.). The Economic Burden of Malaria. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2624/

Malaria. (2018, April 18). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/faqs.html

Malaria. (2018, January 03). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mal…

Mali. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.linkmalaria.org/country-profiles/mali

Risk factors for malaria infection and anemia for pregnant women in the Sahel area of Bandiagara, Mali. (2003, October 27). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/…

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