After the 300s CE, the Roman Empire (and then the Byzantine Empire which followed it) was Christian. As a result of this Christianization, Roman Law came to discriminate against non-Christians, particularly against Jews. You’ve read the relevant selections from Roman Law on the treatment of Jews. ( posted below)
You’ll remember that after the 600s, Arab Muslims conquered the Middle East and North Africa, subjecting Jews and Christians to legal discrimination. You’ve read the Pact of Umar ( posted below) which outlines some of this discrimination.
Look at the way that these Empires treat members of the non-dominant religions based on those texts. If you lived in the ninth century (i.e., the 800s CE), would you rather be a Jew in the Byzantine Empire or a Christian in the Abbasid Caliphate? Why? Explain your answer in at least two paragraphs.