Respond to 2 Classmates Posts for Psych Course

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Repsond with at least 3 paragraphs each…cite all references…NO PLAGIARISM


Before comparing the differences between self-concept, self-esteem, and self-presentation we must first understand how they are alike. When looking at one’s self, we must first define what that word self-means. Individuals use the word self to explain how they view themselves and how they believe others see them. von Soest, Wagner, Hansen, and Gerstorf (2018) define self-esteem as an individual’s general attitude toward or evaluation of the self and reflects people’s beliefs about how worthy they are as a person. Although one’s self-esteem is about their own evaluation of themselves their self-concept is their belief of how others opinions of them (Kassin, 2017). von Soest et al. (2018) explain that interpersonal perception of their self-esteem is influenced by their socioeconomic status, physical health, and social relationships.

How does self-presentation fit into one’s self-esteem and self-concept? According to Wolfe, Lennox, and Cutler 1986 study self-presentations deal with how the individual’s interpersonal relationships are instrumental into them getting ahead. With self-presentation, the individual is avoiding punishment and seeking a reward through motivation. Kassin (2017) explains that social self is how one deal with themselves as a distinct entity in the world. the main difference is that self-presentation deal with the individual being able to observe their own activities within the world.


Kassin, S. (2017). Social Psychology, 10th Edition. [Vitalsource]. Retrieved from…

von Soest, T., Wagner, J., Hansen, T., & Gerstorf, D. (2018). Self-esteem across the second half of life: The role of socioeconomic status, physical health, social relationships, and personality factors. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 114(6), 945-958. doi:10.1037/pspp0000123

Wolfe, R. N., Lennox, R. D., & Cutler, B. L. (1986). Getting along and getting ahead: Empirical support for a theory of protective and acquisitive self-presentation. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 50(2), 356-361. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.50.2.356


One’s self-concept is the beliefs that one has about oneself. It emerges in childhood through social interactions and is made up of self-schemas, or beliefs that guide the processing of information that is relevant to self. It’s how we define ourselves (Kassin, Fein & Markus, 2017). Self-perception theory states that when people gain insight into self by observing their own behavior when internal cues are difficult to interpret. For example, changing one’s facial expression can lead to a corresponding change of emotion (Kassin et al., 2017). Leon Festinger’s social comparison theory states that people compare themselves to others to evaluate their own abilities and opinions. Social comparison can be helpful to people in terms of fitting into society but can also hinder their success in life if they feel inadequate and can never measure up based on their social comparisons. Self-concept seems to be culturally influenced. American culture values individualism while Eastern cultures value collectivism (Kassin et al., 2017).

Self-esteem is an affective component of the self and consists of one’s positive or negative evaluations of self (Kassin et al., 2017). According to socio-motor theory, self-esteem is needed as a gauge that monitors one’s interactions and sends signals whether these interactions are socially acceptable. Another self-esteem theory, terror management theory, posits that self-esteem helps cope with the fear of death by constructing a worldview that helps maintain one’s self-esteem (Kassin et al., 2017). Self-awareness theory states that people who are self-focused notice self-discrepancies which then motivate them to either escape from self-awareness or change their behavior. Again, in terms of self-efficacy, a positive self-esteem can create the self-confidence needed to succeed in personal and professional areas of life.

Self-presentation strategies are used to shape others’ impressions of the self for the purpose of ingratiation or self-promotion (Kassin et al., 2017). Self-verification theory is a strategic self-presentation motive where people are highly motivated to have others perceive them as they perceive themselves (Kassin et al., 2017). Øverup and Neighbors (2016) reported that people daily engage in self presentation and use it in all relationships. They looked at romantic relationships and found that people reported more self-presentation to romantic partners.

Luciano and Orth (2017) studied the development of self-esteem in romantic relationships and discovered that self-esteem was highest in the beginning of romantic relationships and when self-esteem dropped it was an indication of relationship breakup. They stated that this finding held across gender, age and background (Luciano & Orth, 2017). This information would be helpful in assessing relationship distress. Self-verification theory would be helpful in assessing romantic relationships as well since people seek verification that others see them as they see themselves. In fact, Bill Swann (1990) addressed this in a paper that I keep in mind in my work with couples. It seems that how one sees oneself determines the personal success one will have in romantic relationships.


Kassin, S., Fein, S. & Markus, H. R. (2017). Social Psychology (10th ed.). Retrieved from:!/4/54/6/10/2@0:27.1

Luciano, E. C., & Orth, U. (2017). Transitions in romantic relationships and development of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112(2), 307-328.

Øverup, C. S., & Neighbors, C. (2016). Self-presentation as a function of perceived closeness and trust with romantic partners, friends, and acquaintances. The Journal of Social Psychology, 156(6), 630-647.

Swann, W. B., Jr. (1990). To be adored or to be known? The interplay of self-enhancement and self-verification. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior, Vol. 2, pp. 408-448). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

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