PHL 154 Moral Foundations
A) State whether the following arguments are valid or invalid. If the argument is valid,
show and name the schema(s) of the argument. If some steps of the argument are
implicit, make them explicit. If the argument is invalid, explain briefly why the argument
1) If political debates become civil and responsible, the world will end.
2) The world will end.
3) Therefore, political debates will become civil and responsible.
1) Either John or Mary will go to the store.
2) If Mary goes to the store, then Tom must go with her.
3) Tom cannot go with Mary to the store.
4) Therefore, John will go to the store.
1) If God does not exist, then everything is permitted.
2) If it is permissible to kill an innocent human being, then life has no meaning.
3) Life has meaning.
4) Therefore, God exists.
B) State whether each of the following claims is true or false. If the claim is true, give
an example that proves this. If it is false, explain why.
(1) There are valid arguments with all false premises and false conclusions.
(2) There are valid arguments with all false premises and true conclusions.
(3) There are valid arguments with all true premises and false conclusions.
(4) There are valid arguments with all true premises and true conclusions.