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PHIL P150 â Elementary Logic â Exam 1
Please answer the following questions. Do not mark your answers on this sheet, but enter them on a separate sheet of paper. Make your answers as clear and explicit as possible. For example, when you list statements, make sure that they are complete, have a clear subject and verb, and are grammatically self-sufficient (i.e. can be understood just by reading them, without having to look at the passage they come from).
Section A – Only some of the following passages contain arguments. If a passage contains an argument, state the conclusion. If a passage does not contain an argument, classify the passage as a report, illustration, explanation, or conditional statement. To do well in this part of the exam, review sections 1.1 and 1.2 in the textbook.
1. Lead is toxic, but do you know why? Lead is toxic mainly because it preferentially replaces other metals in biochemical reactions. Lead also displaces calcium in the reactions that transmit electrical impulses in the brain, which diminishes the ability to think and recall information. (Adapted from Anne Marie Helmstine, âYour Guide to Chemistryâ) EXPLANATION.
2. Illegal immigrants pay local sales taxes, and many of them also pay state, local, and federal income tax and Social Security tax. They also purchase items from local merchants, increasing the amount these merchants pay in taxes. In addition, they work for low salaries, which increases the earnings of their employers and the amount of taxes these employers pay. Thus, it is not correct to say that illegal immigrants contribute nothing to the communities in which they live.
Argument; conclusion: Thus, it is not correct to say … communities in which they live.
3. Minority women are seven times more likely to be arrested for prostitution than Euroamerican women. Minority women have received significantly longer sentences for crimes against property and served longer periods in prison. For both murder and drug offenses, Euroamerican women ended up serving one-third less time for the same offenses than minority women. (Adapted from Nancy Kurshan, âWomen and Imprisonment in the U.S.â) Report
4. You should definitely install some anti-virus software on your computer, because there are criminal elements lurking in the shadows of cyberspace who send out probes to detect unprotected PCs and install software that assists them in committing identity theft. EXPLANATION
5. If the trade in tiger products is banned and tiger reserves are guarded by well-equipped staff, then tiger poaching will be halted, habitat and life sustaining prey will be restored, and the extinction of tigers in the wild will be averted. Conditional Statement.
6. If driving on the left side of the road is wrong simply because society disapproves of it, then stealing is wrong simply because society disapproves of it. And driving on the left side of the road is wrong simply because society disapproves of it. Therefore, stealing is wrong simply because society disapproves of it. Conditional Statement.
7. Socialized medicine is not recommended because it would result in a reduction in the overall quality of medical care available to the average citizen. In addition, it might very well bankrupt the federal treasury. Argument; conclusion: Socialized medicine is not recommended.
8. The story of ever-increasing divorce is a powerful narrative, but it is also wrong. In fact, the divorce rate has been falling continuously over the past quarter-century, and is now at its lowest level since 1970. While marriage rates are also declining, those marriages that do occur are increasingly more stable. For instance, marriages that began in the 1990s were more likely to celebrate a 10th anniversary than those that started in the 1980s, which, in turn, were also more likely to last than marriages that began back in the 1970s. (Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers, âDivorced from Realityâ) Report
9. It can hardly be denied that people fear death more than they fear life imprisonment. So, we must conclude that the death penalty is a greater deterrent than life imprisonment. Argument; conclusion
10. Fashion accessories can be quite expensive. For instance, a Louis Vuitton handbag can easily cost more than $ 1,000. EXPLANATION
Section B â Which of the following arguments are deductive? Which are inductive? Review section 1.3 in the textbook.
11. Most corporation lawyers are conservatives. Since Barbara is a corporation lawyer, she is probably a conservative. Deductive
12. All whales are mammals, and all mammals give birth to live young. Therefore, all whales give birth to live young.
13. It is unlikely that Herbertâs financial aid package will be renewed. His grades have been steadily declining since he joined a fraternity and started drinking heavily.
14. If a person is well educated, he or she knows about the existence of the Roman Empire. John is well educated. So, he has to know something about the Roman Empire.
15. This circle has an area of exactly 4 square inches. So, a circle with an area of 1 square inch would have a radius half as long.
Section C â Identify each of the following deductive arguments as valid or invalid. Give an informal explanation of your decision. Review section 1.4 in the textbook.
16. All murderers are criminals. Therefore, all non-murderers are non-criminals.
17. David is shorter than Saul. Saul is shorter than Goliath. It follows that David is shorter than Goliath.
18. All physicians are singers. Madonna is a physician. Therefore, Madonna is a singer.
19. All physicians are singers. Madonna is a singer. Therefore, Madonna is a physician.
20. Samuel Morse invented the telegraph. Alexander Graham Bell did not invent the telegraph. Consequently, Morse and Bell are not the same person.
Section E â Identify each of the following inductive arguments as strong or weak. Give an informal explanation of your decision. Review section 1.4 in the textbook.
21. The tag on this new sports coat says that the price is marked down to $49.95. Therefore, the current price must be $49.95.
22. Jenny and Francine were awarded National Merit Scholarships and both love mathematics. Jenny breezed through Dr. Marshallâs calculus class with an âA.â Thus, Francine should do well in that class, too.
23. Professional football is the modern day equivalent of the Roman gladiatorial games. Therefore, since it was expected that gladiators would kill their opponents, no one should complain if professional football players injure or kill their opponents.
24. Harry just bought a brand new car. Harry must have won the lottery.
25. Dennis drives an old beat-up Volkswagen, lives in a cheap apartment, and his clothes are old and bedraggled. Dennis must not have much money.
Section F â For each of the following arguments, state its form and then craft a counterexample to prove that the argument is invalid. Review section 1.5 in the textbook.
26. All neutron stars are things that produce intense gravity, and all neutron stars are extremely dense objects. Thus, all extremely dense objects are things that produce intense gravity.
27. All business executives are active opponents of increased corporate taxes, for all active opponents of increased corporate taxes are members of the chamber of commerce, and all members of the chamber of commerce are business executives.
28. All zoologists are natural scientists. No historians are zoologists. So, no historians are natural scientists.
29. Some people who are serious about politics are people who do not vote. All suicide bombers are people who are serious about politics. Therefore, some suicide bombers are people who do not vote.
30. All people who bite their fingernails in public are neurotic overachievers. Since all neurotic overachievers are philosophers, all philosophers are people who bite their fingernails in public.