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following questions, covering material from Ch. 13 of Methods in Behavioral Research:
Define inferential statistics and how
researchers use inferential statistics to draw conclusions from sample data.
Define probability and discuss how it relates to
the concept of statistical significance.
A researcher is studying the effects of yoga on
depression. Participants are randomly assigned to one of two groups: yoga and
medication (experimental group); or support group and medication (control group).
What is the null hypothesis? What is the research hypothesis?
In the scenario described in the previous
question, the researcher implements two programs simultaneously: a 6-week yoga
program coupled with medication management and a 6-week support group program
coupled with medication management. At the end of the 6 weeks, participants
complete a questionnaire measuring depression. The researcher compares the mean
score of the experimental group with the mean score of the control group. What
statistical test would be most appropriate for this purpose and why? What is
the role of probability in this statistical test?
In the scenario described in the previous questions,
the researcher predicted that participants in the experimental group—yoga plus
medication—would score significantly lower on measures of depression than would
participants in the control group—support group plus medication. True or false:
A two-tailed test of significance is most appropriate in this case. Explain
Explain the relationship between the alpha level
(or significance level) and Type I error. What is a Type II error? How are Type
I and Type II errors different?
A researcher is studying the effects of sex—male
and female—and dietary sugar on energy level. Male and female participants
agree to follow either a high sugar or low sugar diet for eight weeks. The
researcher asks the participants to complete a number of questionnaires,
including one assessing energy level, before and after the program. The
researcher is interested in determining whether a high or low sugar diet
affects reported energy levels differently for men and women. At the end of the
program, the researcher examines scores on the energy level scale for the
following groups: Men – low sugar diet; Men – high sugar diet; Women – low
sugar diet; Women – high sugar diet. What statistic could the researcher use to
assess the data? What criteria did you use to determine the appropriate