intl 440 forum question response

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I have to provide a response to answer two people forum questions. Please see below for the forum.

Forum 1:

Select a country, criminal organization, or hacktivist group known to have a significant cyber warfare capability. Based on your open source research, post a one paragraph summary of

(a) name and brief description of the organization
(b) estimated level of sophistication
(c) example(s) of known or suspected cyber attacks from that entity (other than those mentioned in our case studies)

Happy sixth week to all and many blessings,

I have selected a few countries that I believe have significate capabilities. However, before I do, I found that there are many countries that have come under scrutiny in the past few years when it comes to countries, criminal organization, or hacktivist groups. There seems to be several countries that have significant cyberwarfare superpower capabilities: The United States, Russia, Israel, the United Kingdom, North Korea, Iran and China. Right now, Russia and Iran happen to be the two heaviest contributing of cyber capabilities. It was strongly believed or known for Russia to have used these types of cyber capabilities and weapons to attack Georgia in 2008 with a military infiltration and with a Cyber Snake program in the Ukraine. There was also to have been several attacks believed to be have been made on the United States by North Korea, and one of their supposed targets was on Sony. These high-tech espionages are widespread and are possibly done for criminal, state, or even commercial advantages and gains. And might I say, “ouch”, because the cost of these attacks can vary based on the country and believe me it is high. It is over $15 million dollars here in the United States and over $6 million dollars in the United Kingdom.


Breene, Keith. Who are the cyberwar superpowers?. 2016 May 4. Retrieved from

Forum 2:

Good Morning Everyone,

For this week’s forum post we discuss the perpetrators of cyber warfare, the name and description of the actor, an estimated level of sophistication, and examples of their cyberattacks. While China and Russia are two of the more sophisticated nation state actors in cyber warfare, North Korea has also found its place as a sophisticated actor in cyber warfare.

Even with the various sanctions placed upon North Korea, such as economic, trade, travel, and condemned missile tests, North Korea has found a new domain to conduct warfare in a domain in which it was relatively inexpensive to enter, the cyber domain (Kim & Martin-Hermosillo 2013: Chapple & Seidl 2015, 376). Cyberwarfare allows an actor for asymmetric power projection, empowering nation states, like North Korea, to grow and train within the realm of cyber warfare, because poorly funded organizations or nation states have a relatively low cost of purchasing software that will allow attackers to exploit vulnerabilities of their adversary (Chapple & Seidl 2015, 376).

North Korea, despite its many sanctions has continued to undermine United Nations and United States policies and has found a way into conducting cyber warfare. North Korea’s goal is to become recognized as a world power and formidable nation state, therefore the entry into cyber warfare was relatively easy.

Some of the attacks that North Korea has conducted recently include cyber espionage and cyberattacks against adversarial nation states (Schwarts & Colbran 2019, np). For instance, North Korean hackers stole the personal information of approximately 1,000 defectors of North Korea who live in South Korea, in December 2018 (Schwarts & Colbran 2019, np). Another example is that North Korean hackers used malware to steal tens of millions of dollars from ATMs across Asia and Africa (Schwarts & Colbran 2019, np). The final examples are a North Korean Hacker, known as Park Jin Hyok, involved in the 2014 Sony hack, a 2016 thefts of $81 million from a bank in Bangledesh, and helped created the ransomware called “WannaCry” (Schwarts & Colbran 2019, np).

I would estimate that North Korea has found a domain in which they can project asymmetric warfare and their history of cyber warfare classifies them as highly sophisticated.




Chapple, Mike, and David Seidl. 2015. Cyberwarfare: Information Operations in a Connected World. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.…

Kim, Suk Hi and Mario Martin-Hermosillo. 2013. “The Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions Against a Nuclear North Korea.” North Korean Review 9, no. 2: 99-110,

Schwarts, Andrew, and Emma Colbran. 2019. “Significant Cyber Incidents.” Center for Strategic & International Studies. Accessed February 11, 2019.…

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