Intelligence has become a word with so many meaning that finally it has none and intelligence is what the tests test. Decades after the symposium was first held, Wesman (1968, p. 267) concluded that there appeared to be “no more general agreement as to the nature of intelligence or the most valid means of measuring intelligence today than was the case 50 years ago. Intelligence emphasizes positive interpersonal skills such as being polite, helpful, nice and an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, to deal effectively with his environment. Is global or aggregate because as stated in our reading is composed of elements or abilities which, though not entirely independent, are qualitatively differentiable. By measurement of this ability we ultimately evaluate intelligence.
Intelligence is very challenging to study due to being defined and measured in different ways. Intelligence is strongly influenced by environment although both the genetics and the environment play a big role in determining intelligence. Determining is a matter of how much of an influence each factor has, just in the study of the twins which 40 to 80% of the variance in the IQ ids linked to genetics. The factors behind parenting, the environment a child is related, education, nutrition all contribute to intelligence. The two factors such as primary-verbal factors and performance-based in nature are a largely manner of historical interest. The genetic factors underlie 50 percent of the difference in intelligence among individuals. The person’s genes and environment influence each other and would be challenging to tease apart the effects of the environment from those to the genetics. Genes do have an influence over school performance, and it can easily have eighty percent and up on student academic performance. The environmental factors play a huge role as well in levels of academic achievement. Family, education, peer group and enriched social environment all will have been linked to differences in IQ. Just how the studies had found that first-born child tend to have higher IQ than later born siblings. Kids that comes from a supportive, stimulating families and motivated peers have an advantage while the ones that comes from a bad environment from an effect of trauma and malnutrition it can compromise the brain development. Measured intelligence very because of factors related to measurement process and few of the many factors can affect measured intelligence, the amount of feedback the examiner gives the examinee (Vygotsky, 1978). The amount of practice coaching the examinee has had and the competence the person interpreting the test data. Risk are associated with genetics test because the individual emotional, social even financial consequences can determine poor performance in educational practice. The external environment effects of certain drugs, poverty can be a high risk for a child performance in school and a reason to drop off. Culture has also a lot to do with how an individual perceive and think and culture enable people to survive both physically and socially in order to master or have control of the world around them (Chinoy, 1967).