Directions: Answer the following questions using critical-thinking. All answers must be typed into t

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Directions: Answer the following questions using critical-thinking. All answers must be typed into the document
Chapter 1
1. Describe role of the rapid response team (RRT). Describe three patient changes where it would be appropriate for the nurse to notify the RRT.
Answers:
2. QSEN identified patient-centered care as a nursing competency. Describe one way in which nurses can encourage patients and their family members to become empowered. How will this make the healthcare experience safer?
Answers:
Chapter 2
3. Discuss the role of activity/mobility in the older adults life. Discuss implications of poor physical functioning.
Answers:
4. For each of the SPICES categories/conditions, describe one physiological age-related change that may be responsible for the condition.
Answers:
Chapter 3
5. Discuss the implications of treatment of pain with an opioid: side effects, adverse effects, nursing assessment.
Answers:
6. Discuss the following concepts:
a. Neuropathic vs. nociceptive pain
Answer:
b. Referred vs. radiating pain
Answer:
Please answer the questions from those key points. No citation,no outside sources,and no references.Instructor stated ” Summarize on your own english without copy from key point”
Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition
Chapter 01: Introduction to Medical-Surgical Nursing Practice
Key Points
• One of the most successful IHI initiatives was the creation of the Rapid Response Team (RRT), also called the Medical Emergency Team (MET).
o Rapid Response Teams are one initiative to save lives and decrease the risk for patient harm before a respiratory or cardiac arrest occurs.
o Members of such a team are critical care experts who are on-site and available at any time to respond to calls for assistance.
o Early clinical changes in condition occur in most patients for up to 48 hours before a “Code Blue.”
o Therefore, observe for, document, and communicate early indicators of patient decline, including decreasing blood pressure, increasing heart rate, and changes in mental status.
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Core Competencies
• The six core competencies for health care professionals based on research by the Institute of Medicine (IOM; http://iom.edu/) and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN; http://www.qsen.org/) are: PATIENT-CENTERED CARE, TEAMWORK AND COLLABORATION, EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE, QUALITY IMPROVEMENT, INFORMATICS, and SAFETY.
• Nurses, as advocates for the patient and family, teach them how to be empowered and have more control over their care.
• The Joint Commission recently started a Speak Up™ campaign to provide information to patients and families to increase their empowerment.
• The three ethical principles to consider when making clinical decisions are self-determination, beneficence, and justice.
• Respect for people is one of six basic ethical principles that nurses and other health care professionals should use as a basis for clinical decision making.
• Respect implies that patients are treated as autonomous individuals capable of making informed decisions about their care.
• Patient autonomy is referred to as self-determination or self-management.
• The second ethical principle is beneficence, which emphasizes the importance of preventing harm and assuring the patients well-being.
• Nonmaleficence follows the QSEN core competency of safety, ensuring patient SAFETY and preventing harm.
Chapter 02: Common Health Problems of Older Adults
Key Points
Priority concepts applied in this chapter include NUTRITION, MOBILITY, SENSORY PERCEPTION, COGNITION, ELIMINATION, and TISSUE INTEGRITY.
• Learning about the special needs of older adults is important for health care professionals in a variety of settings.
• The percentage of people older than age 65 years in the United States is about 13%.
• The four subgroups of the older adult population are the young old, middle old, old old, and elite old.
• The fastest growing subgroup is the old old, sometimes referred to as the “advanced older adult” population. Members of this subgroup are sometimes referred to as the “frail elderly,” although a number of 85- to 95-year-olds are very healthy.
• Frailty is a clinical syndrome in which the older adult has unintentional weight loss, weakness and exhaustion, and slowed physical activity, including walking. Frail elders are also at high risk for adverse outcomes.
• The vast majority of older adults live in the community at home or within an environment that offers assistance. Only 5% are in long-term care (LTC).
• Considerations of multiple older adult health issues in other types of institutions (prisons) include alcohol and substance abuse and poor NUTRITION.
• The number of homeless older adults, including veterans of war, continues to rise. These individuals are often faced with chronic health problems, including mental/behavioral disorders.
HEALTH ISSUES FOR OLDER ADULTS IN COMMUNITY-BASED SETTINGS
• Health status can affect the ability to perform daily activities and participate in social activities.
• Increased dependence on others may have a negative effect on morale and life satisfaction.
• Loss of autonomy is a painful event with far-reaching effects.
• Older adults often experience personal losses that can affect their sense of control over their lives.
• Many older adults are not prepared for retirement in view of increased expenses and income that is not adequate to meet basic needs, health care treatments, and medications.
• Many are discharged from health care facilities and require home health services or live in long-term care settings.
• Coordinate care by collaborating with members of the health care team when providing care to older adults in the community or inpatient setting.
• Provide information regarding community resources for older adults to help them meet their basic needs.
• Common health issues and geriatric syndromes affecting the older adults include decreased nutrition and hydration, decreased mobility, stress and loss, accidents, drug use and misuse, mental health/cognition problems (including substance abuse), and elder neglect and abuse.
• Decreased NUTRITION and hydration are two health problems experienced by older adults.
o Reduced income, chronic disease, fatigue, and decreased ability to perform activities of daily living are other factors that contribute to inadequate nutrition among older adults.
o Some older adults are at risk for geriatric failure to thrive (GFTT)—a complex syndrome including under-nutrition, impaired physical functioning, depression, and cognitive impairment.
o Many older adults are at risk for under-nutrition, most often protein-calorie malnutrition, also known as protein-energy malnutrition.
o Older adults may respond to loneliness, depression, and boredom by not eating.
o Diminished senses of taste and smell often result in a loss of desire for food, and poor dental status can affect their ability to chew.
o The risk for dehydration is greater in older adults because of many factors, including diuretics, incontinence concerns, and decreased thirst mechanism.
• Decreased MOBILITY
o Exercise and activity are important for older adults as a means of promoting and maintaining health.
o Teach older adults about the benefits of regular physical exercise.

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