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All students must answer Question 1 and either question 2 or question 3 students should write essays of about 5-6 pages each of the two questions.
Essays must be double spaced, preferably in 12 point font, single-sided. Block quotations may be single spaced. There is no need for endnotes or footnotes. Use simple parenthetical notes, for example, (Fisher, p. 10).
1. Drawing on chapter 9 of Fisher, Bush’s AEI speech of 2003, and Jonathan Rauch’s article “Learning From Ike,” discuss the Bush doctrine of Preventive War and the Bush administration’s efforts to push forward a congressional vote authorizing the potential use of military force against Iraq. Why was the timing important: one year after 9/11 and a little over a month before the midterm congressional elections of 2002? What assertions did the Bush administration make to build the case for war by suggesting that Iraq posed a “forming” or “emerging” threat to American security? How did Senators Trent Lott and Richard Lugar respond to the administration’s arguments? What strategy did John Edwards, Tom Daschle, and the Democrats use to deal with the issue of war in Iraq?
Based on Rauch’s account, how did Eisenhower react to Republican party pressures to engage in preventive war with China? What were some of the elements of Eisenhower’s “realist” approach to foreign policy?
2. Drawing on the first two chapters of Fisher, what were the key arguments made by George Mason, James Madison, and Justice Joseph Story in favor of vesting the power to declare war in the hands of Congress? What specific reasons does John Tower give for asserting that the President is better suited to conduct foreign policy than Congress? How does Hamilton’s Federalist 70 and the Supreme Court’s decision in the Curtiss Wright case lend support to Tower’s argument? Why does Tower think that Congress is ill-suited to handle foreign policy, and national security crises, as a co-equal power? Discuss at least one example used by Tower to support his case. Why does the “Sole Organ” language in Curtiss Wright seem extravagant in Fisher’s view? To what extent did the Court dampen the import of the Curtiss Wright decision in the subsequent decision of Youngstown Sheet & Tube v. Sawyer?
3. Drawing on Fisher pages 91-104, why is Truman’s reliance on U.N. authority for intervention in Korea in 1950 subject to interpretation? What is the significance of the U.N. Participation Act of 1945 (pp. 91-92) as a guideline for U.S. action under U.N. auspices? Drawing on pages 183-192 of Fisher, what was Clinton’s rationale for intervening militarily in Bosnia, including deployment of ground troops? According to Fisher, why was this reasoning flawed? What position did Congress take?
Drawing on Chapter 10 of Fisher, especially the section on military operations in Libya, what are Fisher’s arguments concerning semantic questions of war, i.e., “kinetic versus non-kinetic actions,” “short duration,” versus long duration, narrow scope, versus broad scope, etc.? Why did Obama’s office of legal counsel claim that they did not need congressional authorization for the President’s military actions in Libya? What is Fisher’s critique of their argument?
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