need 3 discussion responses replied two each being 250 words minimum

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Need 250 word response with on cited reference #1

Terrorism is something I didn’t see or even hear about until I went into my sixth-grade classroom and witnessed a horrible event. This event was a coordinated terrorist attack carried out by Al-Qaeda on September 11, 2001. This attack took the lives of 2,977 and injured over 25,000. In a response to this attack the United States launched the War on Terror by invading Afghanistan. Now terrorism can be defined as “”premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents usually intended to influence an audience” [USC Title 22, Sec. 2656f(d)]. Simply translated, this means groups that perform criminal acts which are meant to instill fear, coerce or intimidate people in order to get them to alter their beliefs and/or day-to-day activities” (Bennett, 2003). Now there are two types of terrorism which the United States is affected by which is international terrorism and domestic terrorism. Now I believe that international terrorism can be defined as terrorism that is conducted beyond national borders. This is done by terrorist who attack foreign people in a foreign country in which they are not native to. An example of this is already mentioned above September 11, 2001. Domestic terrorism I believe can be defined as the following. It is a terrorism attack that happens in the same country that the terrorist is a citizen of. An example of domestic terrorism is the April 1995 Oklahoma City bombing which killed 168 and injured 680. As you can see the main way how international terrorism differs from domestic is that international involves people from another country attack others from a different country. The biggest thing to think about is that international terrorism has a foreign influence or connection.

International terrorism is something that has not always been around. “The advent of what is considered modern, international terrorism occurred on July 22, 1968. On that day three armed Palestinian terrorists, belonging to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), one of the six groups that then constituted the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), hijacked an Israeli El Al commercial flight en route from Rome to Tel Aviv” (Hoffman, 2006). This was one of the first example of international terrorism that our assigned reading mentions. Now to answer the second question of if these hijacking campaigns and other terrorist attacks achieved their goals would say sadly yes. Well first one of the main goals of these events was the trading of international terrorist imprisoned in Israel for flight passengers. This goal was met five weeks later with no deaths. Another important thing that these attacks were successful with was getting the attention of the people. The final thing to mention about these attacks was tactic the terrorist learned was media attention. “the terrorists discovered that they had the power to create major media events— especially when innocent civilians were involved” (Hoffman, 2006). As we already know the one of the main objectives of terrorist is to pass fear into as many people as they can. With these news outlets they were able to spread this not only in their region or country but across the world. Media especially social media is a major tool that is being used by terrorist groups today.

Works Cited

Bennett, B. T. (2003). Terrorism. Professional Safety, 48(10), 31-38. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/200302250?accountid=8289

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism, Columbia University Press, 2006. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/apus/detail.action?docID=908254.

Need 250 word response with on cited reference #2

First-Generation CPTED is based mainly on the physical foundations of defensible space with strategies of natural access control, natural surveillance, and territoriality. In contrast, Second-Generation CPTED focuses on social crime prevention strategies, including social cohesion, connectivity, community culture, and threshold capacity. While both First-Generation and Second-Generation CPTED differ in their approaches, both use various aspects of the environment to capitalize on safety and security themes to prevent crime and protect assets (Atlas, 2008). Third-Generation CPTED combines strategies from First and Second-Generation CPTED with environmental sustainability (Mihinjac & Saville, 2019).

In my current workplace, we combine both principles of First and Second-Generation CPTED to create a safe and welcoming environment for employees and visitors. For First-Generation CPTED strategies, the exterior uses the concept of natural surveillance by employing landscaping such as hedges trimmed to rise no higher than the lower edge of windows to obstruct areas the criminal element may use to hide. There are no trees in the parking areas, leaving it wide-open space with high-efficiency LED lights that provide exceptional lighting in all climates. Signage is posted at entrances to the property, alerting visitors of the no trespassing policy and that surveillance camera may record their movements.

All entrances to the building use RFID card readers to grant or deny access. Also, intercoms are installed at each door to allow communication between employees and visitors and security. All visitors are required to sign in at the main entrance where they are given a temporary badge that will enable them access through the turnstiles and is deactivated daily. Any visitor requiring access for more than 24 hours must submit a request through their on-site contact to obtain a badge that works for the times requested. All doors on the interior, including office suites, IDF/LAN/server rooms, and storage rooms, are equipped with RFID card readers as well.

Surveillance cameras are installed at all entrances/exits and in all hallways, IDF/LAN/server rooms, loading dock, parking areas, and lobbies. All cameras are fixed, Internet Protocol (IP) cameras that are converged with access control and intrusion detection systems using VidSys for situation management.

Social crime prevention strategies of Second-Generation CPTED uses components of connectivity and community culture by employing the smartphone. All employees are encouraged to install the LiveSafe app on their phones, which allows instant two-way communication between the employee and Security Operations Center (SOC) operator to provide alerts or tips of suspicious activity, lost and found, safety hazards, traffic/parking issues, vandalism, violence, etc. Employees are also trained to wear their employee ID badges at all times and must use them to access the building. In the event the ID badge is lost or misplaced, it must be reported immediately so that it may be disabled.

References

Atlas, R. (2008). 21st century security and CPTED designing for critical infrastructure protection and crime prevention. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Mihinjac, M., & Saville, G. (2019). Third-Generation Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). Social Sciences, 8(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8060182

Need 250 word response with on cited reference #3

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) originated in the 1970s with the name being coined by C. Ray Jeffrey (Mihinajac & Saville, 2019, p. 182) (Atlas, 2008, p. 54). Oscar Newman took this concept and focused primarily on the physical environment with topics including territoriality surveillance and physical structures (Atlas, p. 56). This concept of defensible space was coined by Newman and became the foundation of CPTED (Atlas, pp. 56-57). One of the repeating concepts of the CPTED framework throughout this week’s readings is that of surveillance. Although I can agree that surveillance is important from a good-guy perspective, we must also realize that bad actors will interpret these areas as vantage points for carrying out an active shooter/mass casualty type attack. I was recently at a new air terminal in New Orleans and as we walked in I noticed that the passenger screening area was two floors below us in an open air concept. Although this design was aesthetically appealing, it provided an opportunity for unscreened individuals to have a vantage point over hundreds if not thousands of people that would be presumably unarmed and defenseless. Perhaps, the active shooter threat is not something that the founders of CPTED considered at the time, but this has become a very popular threat over the last 20-30 years.

The Second-Generation CPTED is based on concepts that originated in the book Death and Life of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs, as was the original CPTED concept (Atlas, p. 79). Second-Generation CPTED is a neat concept because, rather than throwing out an entire idea and starting anew, it builds upon original concepts and lessons learned from First-Generation CPTED to build a better framework. An evolutionary process that embraces successful practices is an efficient way forward because it will keep the security and law enforcement communities from making the same mistakes multiple times. Second-Generation CPTED differs from its predecessor by adding in social factors on a local level and incorporating the four C strategies of social cohesion, connectivity, community culture, and threshold capacity (Atlas, pp. 80-81). By placing emphasis on social factors of a given environment along with physical factors a better environment can be engineered more effectively than focusing on solely on the physical environment. This is because the motives for crime can now be addressed along with crime opportunity. This is similar to the concept of psychological security which can be measured in terms of eliminating desire or motive (Gigliotti & Jason, 2012, p. 80). Additionally, by addressing both the opportunity and motive concepts the Second-Generation CPTED begins to fall in line with security-in-depth concepts.

At my Joint Army/Air National Guard Base the three D’s can be applied to determine environmental security design requirements. First, the designation or purpose of the space is to be used in state and federal Army and Air Force tasks to include training and unit readiness. This includes providing workspaces for state command staff and DOD SCIFs. The definition of the space includes all property assigned to the base, including all buildings and the shared access of the local airport runway. As a military installation the social, cultural, legal and psychological ways that the space is defined is fairly clear cut through Air Force Instructions (AFIs), local instructions, as well as other DOD regulations. The design of the base does leave some room for improvement. The physical design accomplishes the mission, however could be further streamlined.

References

Atlas, R. I. (2008). 21st Century Security and CPTED: Designing for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Crime Prevention. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

Gigliotti, R., & Jason, R. (2012). Approaches to Physical Security. In L. J. Fennelly, Effective Physical Security (pp. 77-91). Waltham: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Mihinajac, M., & Saville, G. (2019, June 11). Third-Generation Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). Social Sciences, 8(6), 182-201. doi:10.3390/socsci8060182

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