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Exam #2 Study Guide
Â· Chapter 4
o Define Descriptive Epidemiology
o Answers who, what, when, where
o Different descriptive study designs – define, compare/contrast, identify strengths/weaknesses of each study design
Â§ Ecologic study
Â· What is the ecologic fallacy?
Â§ Case Report and Case Series
Â§ Cross-Sectional Surveys
Â§ Serial surveys
o Kinds of data in descriptive epidemiology
Be able to define/identify/calculate (where applicable) and interpret the following:
o What is a ratio? A proportion? A rate?
Â§ Incidence-density rates (person-time rate)
Â§ Attack rate (cumulative incidence rate)
Â§ Prevalence rate
o Crude and age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates
Â§ Rationale for adjustments
Â§ How to adjust
Â· Direct Method
Â· Indirect Method
o Standardized Morbidity (or Mortality) Ratio (SMR)
o Numerical methods to present epidemiological data
Â§ Measures of central tendency
Â· Mean, median, mode
Â§ Measures of dispersion
Â· Range, standard deviation
o Empirical rule (see p. 105-106)
o Measures of statistical association
Â§ Correlation co-efficient
Â· Chapter 5
o Descriptive epidemiology and person, place, time
o Why is descriptive epidemiology helpful for health care administrators and/or health education specialists?
o Population pyramids
Â§ Shapes of pyramids indicative of birth rates, mortality rates, socio-economic factors, etc.
o Dependency ratio â€“ what is it, and its importance?
Â· Marital/family status
Â· Family structure
Â· How can utilize data based on place?
Â§ Time trends â€“ compare/contrast
Â· Secular trends
Â· Cyclic patterns
Â· Season trends
Â· Chapter 6 â€“ General Health and Population Indicators
Be able to identify/define/calculate (where applicable) and interpret the following health indicators:
Â§ Birth rate
Â§ Fertility rate
Â§ Total fertility rate
Â§ Contraceptive prevalence
Â§ Three things that generally cause death (see p. 159)
Â§ Who certifies a death?
Â§ Cause of death and death certificate data
Â· What data are on a death certificate?
Â§ Types of mortality rates
Â· Crude mortality rate
Â· Cause-specific mortality rate
Â§ Infant mortality rate
Â· Why is this a major health status indicator?
Â· Neonatal mortality rate â€“
o Post neonatal mortality rate
o Perinatal mortality rate
Â· Fetal death rate (stillbirth)
Â§ Abortion rate
Â§ Maternal mortality rate â€“ Why is this a major health status indicator?
Â§ Proportional mortality ratio (PMR)
Â§ Case fatality ratio (CFR)
Â§ Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)
Â· How to calculate YPLL?
Â· YPLL Rate â€“ why use YPLL rate?