# EPIDEMIOLOGY EXAM

Exam #2 Study Guide

Â·      Chapter 4

o   Define Descriptive Epidemiology

o   Answers who, what, when, where

o   Different descriptive study designs – define, compare/contrast, identify strengths/weaknesses of each study design

Â§  Ecologic study

Â·      What is the ecologic fallacy?

Â§  Case Report and Case Series

Â§  Cross-Sectional Surveys

Â§  Serial surveys

o   Kinds of data in descriptive epidemiology

Â§  Nominal

Â§  Ordinal

Â§  Discrete

Â§  Continuous

Be able to define/identify/calculate (where applicable) and interpret the following:

o   What is a ratio? A proportion? A rate?

Â§  Incidence-density rates (person-time rate)

Â§  Attack rate (cumulative incidence rate)

Â§  Prevalence rate

o   Crude and age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates

Â·      Direct Method

Â·      Indirect Method

o   Standardized Morbidity (or Mortality) Ratio (SMR)

o   Numerical methods to present epidemiological data

Â§  Measures of central tendency

Â·      Mean, median, mode

Â§  Measures of dispersion

Â·      Range, standard deviation

o   Empirical rule (see p. 105-106)

o   Measures of statistical association

Â§  Correlation co-efficient

Â·      Chapter 5

o   Descriptive epidemiology and person, place, time

o   Why is descriptive epidemiology helpful for health care administrators and/or health education specialists?

Â§  Person

Â·      Age

o   Population pyramids

Â§  Shapes of pyramids indicative of birth rates, mortality rates, socio-economic factors, etc.

o   Dependency ratio â€“ what is it, and its importance?

Â·      Gender

Â·      Race/Ethnicity

Â·      Marital/family status

Â·      Family structure

Â·      Occupation

Â·      Education

Â§  Place

Â·      How can utilize  data based on place?

Â§  Time trends â€“ compare/contrast

Â·      Secular trends

Â·      Cyclic patterns

Â·      Season trends

Â·      Chapter 6 â€“ General Health and Population Indicators

Be able to identify/define/calculate (where applicable) and interpret the following health indicators:

o   Birth

Â§  Birth rate

Â§  Fertility rate

Â§  Total fertility rate

Â§  Contraceptive prevalence

o   Mortality

Â§  Three things that generally cause death (see p. 159)

Â§  Who certifies a death?

Â§  Cause of death and death certificate data

Â·      What data are on a death certificate?

Â§  Types of mortality rates

Â·      Crude mortality rate

Â·      Cause-specific mortality rate

Â§  Infant mortality rate

Â·      Why is this a major health status indicator?

Â·      Neonatal mortality rate â€“

o   Post neonatal mortality rate

o   Perinatal mortality rate

Â·      Fetal death rate (stillbirth)

Â§  Abortion rate

Â§  Maternal mortality rate â€“ Why is this a major health status indicator?

Â§  Proportional mortality ratio (PMR)

Â§  Case fatality ratio (CFR)

Â§  Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)

Â·      How to calculate YPLL?

Â·      YPLL Rate â€“ why use YPLL rate?